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Diving Photos

Tuesday, January 20, 2009

BEAUTIFUL MALUKU

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ISLAND TAGALAYA, white sand and mangrove forests that grow around a unique of this island. Tagalaya around the waters of the sea there is a garden that has a sea biota diverse and still very beautiful. This place is ideal for those of you who like the bottom of the sea diving.



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BEACH DORUME, well have a great sea waves. For your surfing pleasure, came to this beach on the days around December. At the time of the waves on the beach Dorume can reach a certain altitude. Charm that can be enjoyed pasirnya is a very smooth and looks sparkler by the sun. This is because the beach sand Dorume contain iron seed.



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BLUE TALAGA , The people around call, terletaknya in the village Mamuya district Galela. Having water that is clean and colorful kebiruan so called Talaga Biru. According to legend, the era of the first woman from Khayangan often bathe in this talaga. The uniqueness of this place is any foliage that falls in the middle talaga always float to the edge so that water talaga always appear clear and clean.




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ISLAND DODOLA, paving Surrounded by white sand beaches that are very knowledgeable of the island Dodola Large and Small Dodola. Panorama surrounding natural and crystal clear water is perfect for swimming and diving. There are also other islands around which you can explore. Dodola beach is 5 miles from Daruba, capital of the District of South Morotai.



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BEACH KUPAKUPA, The uniqueness of this beach is located as if that is in the bay so that water has a very calm sea. Is ideal for water skiing, boating, swimming and MANCING. Beringin trees that grow along the coast is also the scene for enjoyment. Sunday in the day this place is usually visited by many tourists.




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KUMO BEACH, located on the island of Kumo. The beach is the closest distance from Tobelo. Marine water that is clean is suitable for boating, surfing and swimming. From this place you can enjoy face Tobelo city that is located exactly in front of it. Not far from this place there are small islands such as island Rorangane, dislocated islands and island Bawole which also offers the unique charm of nature.



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BEACH LUARI, with white sand beach and natural scenery of this charming village located in North Luari districts Tobelo. Location directly facing the Pacific ocean is the attractiveness of segregated beaches Luari. This place is often used for the tourist and recreational swimming. Easy to reach places with land transportation, 15 minutes from Tobelo.



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ISLAND marrow, with the value of historical high is located only 3 miles in front of the city Daruba. Zumzum are small islands with a natural panorama of white sand beach pebble. General Douglas Mc Arthur, associate troop leader for the Asia-Pacific region during the world war II had lived on the island. Goa central command and the landing amphibi still visible on the island.



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TAMAN LAUT TOBOTOBO, located in the village Tobotobo district Loloda Islands. This place has a marine park which is very beautiful, so are strongly advised to Snorkling or diving activities. Tobotobo also found in thousands of bats that live in the dependent mangrove trees and bath dove white and blue. This place can be reached with the sea transportation.



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BOBALE BEACH, located on the island of Kao Bobale district. In the waters around this place there is a marine park that is still very natural, so very often used the tourists for diving activities. On the island there is also a bunker is still intact, which is a Japanese monument on the second world war. Bobale can reach the island with a speedboat from the village of Daru with mileage of only 20 minutes.



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TALAGA-GALELA Duma, Duma-Galela Lake is the largest lake in North Halmahera, located in the district Galela and can be reached through the land for 45 minutes from Tobelo. This lake offers a beautiful panorama of nature and natural. Water clear and calm, so suitable for swimming, rowing and MANCING. Not far from this place, there is also talaga Makete, talaga Likonano and talaga Kapupu.



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MATA AIR PANAS MAMUYA, located in the village Mamuya district Galela which is a spring that comes from the belly of the mountain Mamuya. Hot water is used for both berendam. For the local community hot nutritious mamuya trusted to heal various skin diseases. This place is only 15 km from the town of Tobelo.



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KAPASETI, Hat War by the local residents called Kapasti. It is the Sultan of Ternate to the King Momole. In addition there is also the Hat war ordnance, among other long parang (sword), a vial containing the oil and root wood tied red cloth and leather bia (shells) that are usually in use during the war. This object can be found in the village Soakonora district Galela West.


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TELUK SOMOLA, small islands of mangrove ditumbuhi above the rocks and sea water is crystal clear kebiruan the scenery can be found in this place. In this place you can go by boat through bay while enjoying the beauty Somola. At the time a particular variety of fish in the sea will enter the amount, and many were trapped in the waters of this bay. This beautiful place can be reached from the beach with boating Galela Pune district.



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PADI WANGONGIRA, One of the uniqueness that can be found in the village of West Wangongira Tobelo is the rice plant that grows in the swift river current. River where rice is grown is given a name that means the river Molulu slip. According to legend, when a grandmother back from the fields with the rice, the grandmother slipped away and brought the river flow. Paddy brought before a grandmother and then grow to this day.


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STONE COFFEE, There on the beach Posiposi-Rao, Morotai South West District. A unique name derived from the story of local people who often drink coffee aroma smell coming from this stone. Usually coffee aroma is tercium the afternoon. In the same location, we also can swim, surf, diving and boating. If you want to surf, November and December is the ideal time to visit this place.



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HIBUALAMO KAKARA, Kakara Island as a trusted home-first culture Hibualamo. For you it mampirlah tour history to this island to see the construction in the first custom house Hibualamo. Hibualamo home means a great round shape. Kakara island can be reached only with a speedboat about 15 minutes from the port of Tobelo.


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ISLAND RORANGANE, Rorangane Island is a cluster of small islands located in front of the city Tobelo. This island has a sea water is very clear and clean so that it is appropriate for those of you who idolize sports pool. Rorangane island can be reached only with a speedboat about 15 minutes from the port of Tobelo.



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JAPANESE hiding hole of the World War II, One of the history of tourism can be found in the village district Galela West Samuda is hiding hole of the Japanese during world war II. A hole hiding underground tunnels along the ± 20 meter has several rooms that are estimated to meeting rooms. Because the exact location of which is under the road so visitors can feel the vibration when the sound of vehicles that are on top of travel.



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BEACH GAMLAHA, It is one of the coast of North Halmahera in with the natural environment that is still very beautiful. Gamlaha beach with fine white sand and a calm sea currents is one of the locations listed in the tourist village Gamlaha. From this beach you can enjoy the island Bobale which is located in front of it while you relax rimbunnya among coconut trees that grow along the coastal beaches. Do not miss to visit this beach when you are in North Halmahera.



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Bunker and cannon Kao, Kao History of Halmahera in the North can not be released from Japanese occupation during World War II. In this city many found objects such as a war monument at the location of the airport there are Kuabang Kao. In this location there are some bunker and four cannon in good condition. Bunker 2 had the largest room with a long tunnel ± 15 meters in the area near the runway. Platform Kuabang own Japanese heritage is the foundation.



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GUNUNG API DUKONO, Dukono is one of the tourist attraction volcano in North Halmahera. Dukono mountain with a height of 1185 meter dpl ± is one of the most active volcano in Indonesia. Climbing to the top can be done through the village or Mamuya House (distance ± 13 Km) passing through the plantation of coconut, nutmeg, clove, chocolate and banana owned population. Make sure you know the latest status before Dukono mountain climbing.



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PANTAI POSIPOSI

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THREE STONE FIRE PLACE

THREE STONE fireplace:

By. Elifas Tomix Maspaitella
1. It is important, be aware
TEXT is a summary and reflection on advanced Thesis I write in 2001 at the Satya Wacana Christian University - Salatiga. After re-read the thesis, academic speculation bring a cultural awareness, the various mechanisms of social control that actually has no culture in our society in Maluku. Three stone hearth (TBT) in defenisi is one of them, in addition to some that deserve as called Masohi, hamaren, sosoki, badati, sasahil, etc.. However, specification of TBT on the network located in the terpintal. Generally, the system of cooperation TBT is known in all the land (Christian) in Maluku, which consists of elements from the Government Affairs, Assembly of the Church (Church), and the Council of Teachers (Education).
In the lands of Islam, this system is commonly called the Elders Teru. This system is generally developed in the lands of Islam Leihitu, consisting of Siatawa - King Hitu - Timu Lau. With a slightly different pattern in Christian countries, this is the style of government as a place of King Hitu center (centrum) government, and Siatawa and Timu Lau, is a network of government that oversees the areas of governance in the area Hitu it. This system is then developed specifically in Tial as a pattern of social structure.
Principally, what is in tatters pelembagaan TBT, he still is a social mechanism of cooperation that can contribute to the positive development of the country. Even in the era otonomisasi, with strong emphasis on the revitalization of traditional systems of cooperation adatis such as this can also be part of a system of social control and strengthening the network in the framework of civil society at large.
2. TBT term future
I certainly will not explain in detail the history of TBT here. Some key events in the history of organizing TBT, and pergeserannya due to the influence, were presented to try pemaknaan cultural basis of this system.
TBT term became part of the cultural system semantics people Maluku. Even as the elements of stone materials in the term that has become a sign of a culture that has a link to the sacred values of the Moluccas.
Formulation sei hatu Hale, hetu lisa Pei; sei lesi sou, sou lesi ei - who bale stone, stone tindis him; who Langgar oath, sumbah kill him - is the formulation of laws, where a stone material legalization, which diparalelkan with "legal" .
In that framework, the stone is also the center ritus klen and / or community in the country. This is seen through the stone teung owned by each country and also the SOA. Teung stone was a sign that restrict the legal settlement antarsoa environment. Ema in, for example, in front of each stone teung, is an old house each SOA. In some countries, there are stone pamale in each baileu.
Some environmental settlement or sacred place in the mythology of the Maluku also contain the term stone. Such as, stone tables, karbou stone, brick, stone koneng, gong stone, stone capeu, hanging stone, stone months, marael stone, stone pit, stone babunyi, etc..
TBT is called in its own whim term, such as TBT, Three stone fireplace, three stove, oven Three. Variety is the designation comes from the sacred centers in each country.
In Suli, is the term used fireplace Three. This term comes from the stacks of stone resembling a stone fireplace at the beach as a symbol Suli relationship Pela Suli-Waai-Kaibobo. Third is the stone representation of the third country in question. This term is then transferred to mention the system of cooperation antarinstitusi earlier in the TBT.
Unlike the case in Rutung, the term used is stone fireplace Three, which comes from the stacks of stone lieutenant, malesi stone and stone mauweng in their old country. Third is the rock in the center of the country beileu in the old country, as a representative on the collective leadership of the country. This term also transferred ago to take the system of cooperation TBT earlier.
In Hatalai, stacks of stone in the stone marawel, or usually referred to as stone resin fuel, the use of the term as a source of stone fireplace, antarinstitusi for cooperation in the TBT. However, in Akoon (Nusa Sea), justu pengistilahan TBT from the position of the Church, and SD Baileu resembles a stack stone fireplace. People Ohoiwait in Kei Islands, thus using this term to be on the order of the stone fireplace in favor woma (old country) for them.
In every country there will be a fad pengistilahan to the resources that made specific reference pengistilahan it. However, in general, each term was used as a relationship of cooperation antarinstitusi representation of the Government, Assembly of the Church, and Education.
3. Overview of History
I will only set back the records etnografis us. Relations, social institutions in the countries in the (Christian) has presented a palpable by L. Frank Cooley. We will criticize Cooley, because he saw a conflict antarinstitusi phenomenon, and forget a mechanism of conflict that have been actually in the countries, even where examine Cooley (Allang, Soya).
The mechanism of conflict antarinstitusi was TBT. Etnografis research proves that the mechanism of cooperation that TBT is now, is the transfer or modification on the same system, which has been in the remote ancestor.
Formation can be seen in the initial composition Saniri Three Air Batang - Eti - tune - Sapalewa, where the meeting place in the formation of water that reflect terstrukturnya elements indigenous leaders of each tributary. However, in the structure of the small, visible in kolektifitas leadership Latu, the customs and Mauweng. This is the third element in a government bond of social custom. Latu is responsible for all segments of living people, especially government. In certain matters he was assisted by the customary chief, as executive and supervisory practices customary society, and mauweng to organize ritus custom or religion. The three elements of this structure does not reflect a separate, but that full commitments to one another. Stress tasks and fell heavily on the role of responsibility adatis community. Support the implementation of a customs duty.
This structure is changed at the time of entry of the influence of Christianity, especially the Netherlands. Because the Portuguese are not open to change society in order adatis Maluku (Central). Changes in the status and position latu to the king, the formation of TBT also changed significantly. Moreover, when the position and role mauweng tereduksi and replaced by the Church, in this case Priest. Immediately going large-scale attacks against the indigenous. Contain elements deemed customary disbelief, a justification western theology and philosophy, which apparently also participated in theology and philosophy mereduksi culture of the Moluccas.
At the same time, the position of head of customs in teralienasi to the Government Affairs, as a symbol of secular power, and was replaced by Education / Teacher Djoemat, which is also part of the Church. Because at that time, and was organized by the school as part of penginjilan. Then we have a new dimension of TBT in the formation of the Government Affairs - Assembly of the Church - the Council of Teachers, as there is at this time.
When applied to the system of government according to Law no.5/1979 on Village Governance system, changes the structure Saniri Affairs, have been making System TBT termarginalisasi, because the bureaucracy LMD / LKMD has taken control of the government control the village.
Cooperation mechanism is not as effective as TBT run before, even in Christian countries, the only visible activity rituals (Ibadah TBT), which became part of the general policy of the Church. A movement space TBT social responsibility that makes this system is becoming increasingly lost rancu and social reliability.
3.1. Social Roots TBT System
The root of the social system in the Maluku TBT pattern exists in the relationship antarinstitusi-social institutions in the country of each other. Runutan history depth research requires, in addition to the availability of ethnographic material which explicitly describe the system and implied that TBT. Presumably ethnographic materials that do not even provide a limited picture of the specific system. This system does not appear in some of the explicit material on the ethnography Maluku. F.J.P. Sachse

describe the social system of the period before the entry of foreign influence, especially on the island of Seram. Cooley only arrived in the detection of the social factors in the socio-cultural relations between the religious institution (church) with the government, conflict and the reality that the two institutions. Chauvel illustrate the development and participation of government institutions (the King), Education and the Church in the dynamics of local politics since 1880-1950. Jansen is only explicitly mentions TBT (fire place, three fire), especially in Tial (Salam and Sarane) as part of the system teru elders in Hitu.
Therefore the reconstruction of historical reference systems old (old) as the original model of the new system, as the motivation and values that membidani terbentuknya cooperation antarinstitusi or antarelemen social, as well as factors that cause changes and / or development of social structures in society .
a. The nature of Maluku: Crawl to the community in cosmology
Actions in the social scale because of the encouragement shown any kognisi and motor community. There is the emergence of a basic motivation of social action. What Elizabeth Traube views on the relationship between the framework of social order with the cosmos that is able to explain the views of the world or cosmology membidani a succession of social action.
The emphasis on aspects kosmologis here is to the pattern of views of the world (worldview) about the community and the pattern kognisi in ceremony and the traditional territory of the country. The personal is every member of human society that has the physical structures, as envisaged in the division of anatomy by Boulan, that the human body consists of the uru or Ulu (head over to the center), the hesam hesa or despair hesam (central region), and the hatu (terj. Stone, foundations, alas), which is down to the foot of the center. Where hesam hesa is bertemunya the uru and hatu. Anatomy shows that the structure of totality perspective with emphasis on the center as a meeting place, each element.
Perspective is a totality in carapandang totality of the community as a community to uphold the traditional rules adatnya. Each member of the community have an obligation to meet all the customary rules from birth until death. All his life movement dilingkupi by custom. In the framework of the traditional elements are important in the implementation by each member of indigenous community. On the person-it appears that a person holding the office customs, such as the customs and mauweng (priest / clergy customary).
Perspektif totality and centralistic and concepts of the balance of the procedure and color patterns solemnization custom. Centralistic pattern visible on the views on Nunusaku Center (Three meetings Batang Air: Eti, tune, Sapalewa) as a community center cosmic origin and human Seram Maluku. Seram island believed as Nusa Ina (Mother Island), as well as makrokosmos also Baileu in the country. The implementation of the customary ceremonies focused on specific places, such as the Old Country, Stone Teung Affairs, Teung Soa, Baileu, Old House / Tau Ruma, etc..
The concept of balance can be seen through the structures marks (sign), which refer to the values such as trust in the system (the concept of oneness or Asa in nature), social systems (as the totality of territory genealogis - Asa in the day-to-day life or in the country ), Asa concept in the human body, and the legal system, especially in terms of customary law nominalitas.
Asa in the belief system (religion tribe) is a reflection of the oneness Upu Ila (h) Kahuressi as the Creator of the universe. In the totality of the universe consists of Asa Upu Ila (h) (as the Creator), Heaven and Earth (as creation). Cosmos divided up on the environment, occupied by Upu Lanite (= sky god), and the environment take (= country), residential community, occupied by Upu Ume / Upu Tepele (= God's earth). Both the environment is one that ties cosmos, not a system hierarkhis. Supreme being (Upu) have in the cosmic totality, together with men. Upu and society in the whole cosmos with the role and functions of the different.
Asa Kosep realized in the country's territory as a socio-genealogis, where people live, the territory's socio-genealogis alliance klen, or SOA. Soa-SOA divide the region in their respective territories of the country, and limit antarteritori marked with stones teung. Green land is divided into common areas and Lao virgin (top and bottom areas, or areas to the sea and the mountains to the area). There is also the country and old country, and the totality of the land area is covered by regular ewang - the country (the limit of the mountain foot to the coastal beaches) - Sea.
In the land classification system is also visible in the social structures. Soa as a social unit, which consists of some of the house divided into two forms, namely SOA batih the detective in the original house in the country and the SOA anaueng spier house immigrants from other countries and settle in a particular country. Each SOA are Soa Head, who is also a member Saniri Affairs, together with the King, as the leaders of the community, assisted by the devices of other officials such as lieutenant, malessi, and marinyo.
Asa built the concept from the perspective totality. Understand the community as a totality kosmosnya not dikotomis phenomenon. So that the administration does not lead to the cosmos antagonism parts, does not also refer to the pattern ordinatif and subordination, or hierarkhis. Cosmos is a totality. The principle of totality mengitegrasikan elements that differ, so it seems is the relationship of each part is balanced. The dominance of a small element of the other, as far as each element function effectively. Differences exist only on the function, position and place in which an element is located.
Natural pattern kognisi mind or what people in the totality dibahasakan perspective, centralistic and balance (equalibrium) will be in perspective and look menafsir data, especially the relationship antarinstitusi in TBT.
b. History Perkemangan Social System
Social institutions according to R.N. Bellah is a form of action ekspetasi from individuals and groups that take place through social sanctions, both positive and negative. Institutions is a form of normative and held through the laws and customs (mores - the formal traditions and practices). Term is the concrete in the form of an organization. Bellah antra distinguish institutions and social organizations with a view on the correlation between institutions and organizations, as if only thinking about the organization and not to the institution, which means we tend to simplify the problem indeed. The core of the institution is cooperation (coorporation) and tangggungjawab (responsibility).
In the complex social institutions is a mechanism of social welfare developed to achieve together. Government as part of a pattern of institutionalization is a control system that is above all the secular segments of society. System of government is starting from the time of the ancestors, although with jabaran tasks, functions and the division that is still simple.
Remote ancestors on the Maluku people (in the Seram Island) there are two tribes that Wemale and Alune. In tribes that live groups, small community that is family (marked with the family name), which formed a coalition of the house. Groups of houses consist of several families who came from a single ancestor. Spier house and joined in a social unit called SOA.
Each led by a SOA Upu, and occupy the territory or Secure Hena. Each share the SOA area, where the limit antarsoa marked tengan stone teung. Homogeneous population patterns, both in the composition of SOA and leadership roles. No division of tasks and a clear authority.
Led by a secure Upu. Because originally upu SOA is also a leader, then the Upu lead a safe Amanupui called normal, or in a certain place called Latu-Aman Nusa In organizing social pattern began to develop. Cooley wrote that "upu responsible for all worldly affairs. In matters of war he is assisted by a malessi. Meanwhile, religious affairs and "the world" held by mauweng and pembantunya malimu or maitale. The composition of leadership that called Saniri Affairs.
The pattern of social responsibility and the role of the point that there is no difference (differentiation) in the light pattern pengorganiasian community. Roles are simple, including segments of limited social, related to how life in the community and how the relationship with the world. Weight of the role held by the figures kharismatik in the community.
SOA slowly be great. Appear to expand the territory of both spontaneous and social aggression. War antarsuku Wemale and Alune for example in the history of the migration Wemale in Honitetu with Alune in Rumberu (Seram Bagian Barat) shows that the conflict became one of the efforts the establishment of new territories. Bulge members SOA (fertility) and / or encourage the expansion of social conflicts to expand and / or to explore new territory outside Seram. There were several migration waves of the house or on a Secure SOA / Hena from Seram Island to the islands of Ambon-Lease (Ulias). During the migration ancestor some migrant groups led by a lieutenant. In the country's new structure and system of government is safe. The only head of government is the captain, replacing the position Amanupui / Nusa-Latu, assisted by Malessi and Mauweng. Pembantu-adjuvant is marinyo and other kewang. The period of relatively short lieutenant; more related to the seizure or the determination of the new territory. Until the determination of a territory defenitif, lieutenant still works for some time until the new diangkatnya Amanupui.
At the time of the expansion occurred almost simultaneously from the kingdom of Ternate and Tidore to Ambon-Lease, which result in terbentuknya alliance Uli, consists of several groups Secure / Hena. Uli system itself does not have a clear leadership hierarkhi. Evidence about the structure and history of leadership in the pattern Uli be difficult. But the general impression of the material etnografis existing system and that there is still Uli (Uli Hatuhaha eg - on the island of Haruku) presumably Uli coordinate system is a political antarAman / Hena; especially with a line pattern keleluhuran and social regulation (similar) same . In this case the Central Maluku call Pata - Pata Siwa, Pata Lima, Southeast Maluku people call Ur - Ur Siw, Ur Lim.
In Uli, each headed by Aman Upu or Latu its own. Safe for that demographic a bit, led by Patih or Rich People, and each has a secure autonomous status.
Uli system to survive the influence of the entrance to West Maluku. Portuguese entry to Maluku (1511/12) or the Island of Ambon (1525) does not mereduksi ago systems asali to the political system in the style of the West. Portuguese league would use the local-political alliance for the purpose of helping ekspansinya (economic). In the history of Catholic mission on the island of Ambon, Xavier Fanciscus use Uli alliance in order to coordinate the services in the country that some dikunjunginya. For example, Ema serve as the central church of the countries that joined in Uli Ema, Ema namely, Hukurila, Leahari and Rutung.
Different attitude with the Portuguese, the VOC would be. Alliance-league changed the local political systems, with the new. Alliance-alliance Uli cleared the way up to the republic-republic country (17th century). Safe Territory / Hena moved from the mountains to the coastal beaches to facilitate the chain VOC control in the set, take the path of trade and the spice (clove).
Diangkatlah King, direct descendants of the house or Upu that adatis entitled to occupy the position that, so it can be understood that the King in adatis structure is the new name for Upu or Nusa-Latu, the leaders of the community. If Upu identical to the house, and Amanupui Nusa Latu-identical with the Secure / Hena, the country synonymous with the King. In conducting its work, assisted by staff Saniri Affairs, which consists of the Head of Soa. Government affairs in the field of security by the country dipegango captain and Malessi. Other officials is marinyo, the "spokesman" The King, who served all the results Saniri decision to the public. Religious affairs held by a mauweng, or also almanan, and kewang as supervisors petuanan area (land and sea) and land borders of the land antarsoa with one another.
Changes in social structures is the fact evolutif community development or social-cultural community. On the evolution of community / social, Lewis A. Morgan see levels of the lowest stage of development, mid and high. In another term, Morgan mentions that the development of adari stage savagery, barbarism and civilization. Level changes occur through lower - medium - savagery upper, lower - medium - barbarism upper and lower - medium - upper civilization, which is determined by technological factors. Evolution or "progresi" in the Morgan show strong factors in the environment of the community. There is awareness of the collective experience and because of environmental factors.
On the other hand, Herbert Spencer to see the evolution of a culture defined by actions outside the accepted by the community (diffusion). There are progressive changes in the environmental community at a glance, we looked at the form of asilnya. The change is possible because the community participated divide roles and functions that are different. At the level of Robert N. Bellah mendefenisikan:
Evolution is a process of increasing differentiation and complexity of the organization to provide organism, social system or perhaps any unit, with a greater ability to adapt to the environment so that the system is relatively more autonomy to the environment than the system that is less complex at the time fathers.
In general, the evolution of culture in a different environment with other environments. Each environment to measure the growth and / or changes due to the influence of different. Because of the theory of evolution is useful to explain why and how the changes that occur. In connection with the organization or social institutions, the evolution of the changes and / or development in the role and function of structural elements of social tiaptiap.
3.2. Factors Terbentuknya TBT
At least two factors that cause terbentuknya TBT, which is [a] factor kosmologis and [b] social factors.
[a] factor Kosmologis
The emergence of TBT can not be released from the perspective of the basic motivation and the community. Perspective is envisaged in view of their world, which appears in the myths and symbols used by the community (as to a particular message).
Materials myth Maluku community structures show the value of the occurrence of an alliance of life (eg myths pela). In addition there is also the use of symbols to provide a basis for the legitimacy of the alliance life. In pela myth can be seen various symbols. Pela in the form of blood, blood is a symbol of legitimacy pela alliance.
In addition to the blood, the stone is also a symbol of legitimacy pela, for example, between the country Kaibobu (West Seram), Waai and Suli (Ambon Island - Leihitu). Symbols pela third country in the country Suli, and known by the name of TBT. Where each stone is a representation of a third country. While the stone as a symbol of legalization pela Golf and Hukurila (Ambon Island - Leitimor) known by the name of the stone cut tusa (cat).
Another thing is that in the formulation of legalization pela oath: sei hatu Hale, lisa hatu Pei; sei lesi sou, sou lesi ei - terj. Who reverse / unload stacks of stone, stone [capsize squash) tindis him, who violate the oath, swearing to kill him. In the formulation of the oath dianalogikan with stones (hatu).
Stone here has a sacred meaning in the structure of society kosmologis Maluku. customs in each country have generally teung stone, stone door of the country, pamali stone, etc.. In the countries terentu also known lieutenant stone, stone malessi, stone mauweng (in Rutung called Three Stone fireplace), there is also a milestone Latusia (stone cat in Hukurila). Even baileu country Hukurila and Soya is the order of the stones that resembles a space where consensus. Among the piles of stone that is the king of rock, stone lieutenant, SOA stone heads, stone bastori (= platform). Sacred places in Rutung, Ema, Soya have called stone drinking water, and called on Hatalai stone marawel.
Even the location of some settlements in the South was named to the terms of stone, such as Batu Gajah, Batu Meja, Batu Gong, Batu Gantung, Batu Bulan. There are also places such as Batu mitologis nuances Capeu, Babunyi Stone, Stone hole, etc.. Naming has myth each.
Kosmologis factors that show that in order memaknai TBT didekati from some local pengistilahan (ordinary language) about the system in question. The terms of the local al: Three oven, stove Three, stone fireplace, stone fireplace Three, and three stone hearth. There is a special social background membidani use of the terms in which it is used. The three terms refer to the hearth of a system of government in Teru Elders Hitu. This term is visible in the social structure in Tial, as one of the areas of power Hitu. Three fire system in Tial consists of Siatawa - King Hitu - Timu Lau. The composition of Hitu place as the central structure.
Suli known in Three istila fireplace, which comes from the mythical history Pela Kaibobu, Waai, and Suli. Pela sign that the relationship is three pieces of stone placed in the coastal area of Suli as representatives third country in question. Third rock known as the Three fireplace. The term was later transferred to mention the system of cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, and Education by the Church community Suli, Waai and also Kaibobu.
While the term stone fireplace in the Three Rutung based on the order of the lieutenant stone, stone malessi, and stone mauweng the country's new squeeze (the king of rock) in the old country. The term is translated directly to his system of cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, Education and the Church. Thus, the terms that refer to the system of social classification is available in the history of social community.
Hatalae in cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, Education and the Church called stone fireplace. This term is also transferred directly from the same terms that refer to the order of the country's old stone (stone marawael) as a sacred place where people Hatalae. The order of the rock is often called the "stone resin fuel", because in the first place that people usually burn the resin as a means of long explanation.
On the lands on the island of Ambon, the term generally refers to the TBT cooperation antarPemerintah Affairs, the Church and Education. This model of cooperation developed from old institution that is the relationship between the traditional and Mauweng Nusa Latu, and the latest reality community, especially the complexity of social organizations bersamam with the social system itself.
In my experience, when the entrance to the Gospel of Maluku, there is a conflict between government institutions land (customary representations) and the church and education (Christian representation). Conflict antarinstitusi that encourage the emergence of social awareness and actions that lead to the invention culture through the creation of mechanisms TBT.
Variants of the term that can be said that TBT has a meaning denotatif (sintagmatik) and konotatif (paradigmatik). Denotatif meaning of TBT to the stone as a natural element that is used as a symbol of legalization alliance life. Here, TBT is the order of three pieces of stone untk place of cooking (fire stone). Fuel used is wood. Wood switched the order of three pieces of stone placed above the pot, frying pan, or similar equipment. How is called folkways, namely how to do things that are already in the habit of a special group of people. If the habit is still done from generation to generation, sooner or later will result in a correct way. If so then going to the folkways of a particular framework of norms. People no longer beraktifitas because of habit, but because there are norms that must be obeyed. That means folkways become mores a way that is efficient and can heat or received or folkways of dirasionalkan
The konotatif TBT refer to the social system. Symbols natural switch function as a sign (sign) representas refer to the meaning of a social system. An important element here is the sign, sign it themselves, who use sign it, and what or who are appointed by the sign.
Three stone hearth is a sign pointing to the existence of three social institutions, namely the Government Affairs, Education and the Church. The three institutions are represented by one of the stone composition in the TBT. Shifted its functions, is no longer a place for cooking habits as (folkways) community, but the analogik "to make the country". The location of the kitchen moved to a social environment that is a wider community. No longer in the domestic environment, but the public.
Stone is no longer refer to a natural element, but representatives from the institutions of government, church and education. Batu mengandung makna sosial yang luas, dan tidak menunjuk pada person tertentu dalam masing-masing institusi, melainkan kolektifitasnya. Secara fisik batu itu harus sama besar agar ada keseimbangan, karena itu tidak ada dominasi satu terhadap lainnya.
[b] Faktor sosial budaya
Rujukan yang paling adekuat untuk menunjuk kepemimpinan Tiga unsur adalah dalam formasi Saniri Tiga Batang Air: Eti – Tala – Sapalewa di Pulau Seram. Dalam waktu-waktu yang telah ditentukan, Saniri Tiga Batang Air ini bertemu untuk membicarakan masalah hidup bersama.
Dalam formasi pemerintahan negeri, kepemimpinan tiga unsur dikembangkan dalam formasi tetap: Raja – Kepala adat – Mauweng. Namun formasi itu tidak bertahan lama, digantikan dengan formasu baru pada saat masuknya injil ke negeri-negeri di Maluku, maka terbentuklah TBT dalam: Pemerintah Negeri – sebagai representasi lebaga adat dan sosial masyarakat, Gereja untuk melakukan tugas pelayanan keagamaan dan kehidupan berjemaat, dan Pendidikan yang diarahkan pada pengembangan sumber daya manusia dan peran penyeimbang.
Formasi TBT yang baru ini membuat gereja dan pendidikan menggantikan kedudukan kepala adat dan mauweng dalam formasi dasarnya. Pelibatan unsur pendidikan ke dalam sistem kerjasama TBT merupakan sebuah mekanisme pencairan ketegangan antara institusi Pemerintah Negeri dengan gereja atas klaim-klaim sosial terhadap masyaraka/jemaat. Namun realitas ketegangan itu sebetulnya berpangkal pada perbedaan carapandang mengenai siapakah masyarakat itu. Pemerintah Negeri sebagai pemegang otoritas sekuler mengklaim masyarakat sebagai komunitas adat yang terorganisasi di dalam satu lingkungan sisstem sosial negeri. Berbeda dengan itu, gereja memandang masyarakat sebagai jemaat dan oleh sebab itu memiliki tingkat kepatuhan kepada hukum-hukum gerejawi (agama Kristen Protestan).
Kedua bentuk klaim itu merupakan sebuah pertentangan kosmologis yang berimplikasi pada pengenaan status ganda kepada setiap anggota masyarakat. Di satu pihak adalah anggota masyarakat yang terhisab ke dalam sistem sosial negeri, dan di pihak lain adalah anggota jemaat yang terhisab ke dalam sistem sosial gereja. Penetapan status ganda itu menyebabkan segregasi dan pengelompokkan dalam masyarakat/jemaat. Kondisi itu dirasakan tidak menguntungkan, oleh sebab itu perlu dicari mekanisme yang lebih baik. Masyarakat belajar kembali pada pengalaman masa lampau, bahwa perluada perikatan hubungan antarinstitusi yang dapat membawa kepada kesejahteraan rakyat. Ada jaringan yang hilang ketika gereja mengambil alih keseluruhan dimensi religiositas masyarakat. Peran pendampingan dalam sistem pemerintahan adat yang semula menjadi tugas mauweng yang kini berada di tangan Pendeta agaknya kurang efektif dalam menjalankan fungsi dimaksud. Alasannya pendeta telah memposisikan diri sebagai representasi institusi gereja yang mau tidak mau berada berhadap-hadapan dengan pemerintah negeri.
Dalam kondisi itulah, pelibatan unsur pendidikan signifikan untuk menjaga tatanan kohesif dan kesejahteraan tadi. Adapun beberapa faktor sosial-budaya yang sebagai faktor pembentuk sistem TBT a.l:
[1] Pertambahan jumlah pendiduk sebagai akibat dari pertambahan jumlah anggota dalam satu mata rumah. Hal ini membawa dampak sosial yaitu pelembagaan yang lebih meluas, meliputi klen, atau suku. Secara struktural terbentuklah persekutuan soa yang terdiri dari beberapa mata rumah. Kompleksitas masalah sosial muncul seiring dengan perubahan komposisi kependudukan. Muncul solidaritas sosial secara mekanis yang mendorong perubahan dalam sistem sosial masyarakat (community).

[2] Faktor demografis mendorong ekspansi dan migrasi sosial. Perpindahan geo-sosial sekaligus terjadi juga perpindahan geo-budaya. Pelembagaan masyarakat di tempat yang baru membutuhkan penyesuaian-penyesuaian seadanya dengan situasi lingkungan yang baru pula. Faktor ini dapat menyebabkan perubahan-perubahan tertentu dalam sistem sosial dari tempat asal. Ada penyesuaian-penyesuaian yang dilakukan.
[3] Migrasi sosial membawa dampak langsung dalam budaya masyarakat yaitu difusi budaya. Secara teoretik difusi budaya ialah penyebaran satu unsur budaya dari tempat asalnya ke tempat lain, atau proses di mana unsur-unsur budaya tertentu ditransfer dari satu masyarakat ke masyarakat lainna melalui migrasi, perdagangan, peperangan atau bentuk-bentuk kontak lainnya Paul Landis menegaskan bahwa difusi budaya mempertemukan dua karakter budaya yang berbeda dalam satu lingkungan. Dari polanya Landis menggolongkan difusi budaya ke dalam, pertama, purposeful – yaitu penyebaran unsur budaya tertentu yang dilakukan oleh seseorang atau sekelompok orang secara sengaja ke dalam suatu lingkungan tertentu lainnya.
Contohnya penyebaran agama Kristen dan Islam. Kedua, nonpurposeful – yaitu penyebaran suatu unsur budaya tertentu di mana seseorang atau sekelompok orang tidak bermaksud menemukan suatu tempat di dalam lingkungan budaya lainnya. Ada kondisi-kondisi tertentu dari suatu proses difusi. Pertama, difusi mendorong terjadinya modifikasi unsur-unsur budaya tertentu dari lingkungan yang didatangi oleh pengaruh luar, kedua, unsur-unsur budaya setempat berakulturasi dengan unsur budaya baru yang masuk, ketiga, resistensi budaya (cultural inertia) setempat sehingga tetap menjadi struktur yang dominan dalam lingkungannya (menjurus pada akulturasi budaya).
[4] Tingkat kemajemukan yang tinggi dalam kelompok sosial maupun meningkatkan kebutuhan masyarakat menjadi penyebab lain dari pergeseran dan perubahan dalam sistem sosial. Ini dapat dilihat dalam sketsa di atas.
[5] Dinamika dan perubahan tata politik lokal karena tata politik universal dapat mendorong perubahan-perubahan dalam sistem budaya lokal.
Kepustakaan:
Ajawaila, Jacob W., “Orang Ambon dan Peranan Nenek Moyang (Leluhur), makalah diskusi, Ambon, 2000
Alisjahbana, S. Takdir, Antropologi Baru, Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, 1986
Bartels, Dieter, In de Schaduw Van de Berg Nunusaku: Een cultuur-historische verhandeling over de bevolking van de Midden-Molukken, Utrecht: Landelijk Steunpunt Edukatie Molukkers, 1994
Bellah, Robert N. (eds.,) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1973
Bellah, R.N. & Phillip E. Hammoud, Varieties of Civil Religion, San Francisco: Harper & Row Publ., 1980
Bellah, Robert N., et.al, The Good Society, New York: Vintage Books – A Division of Random House, Inc., 1992
Bellah, R.N., “Evolusi Agama” dalam Rolland Robertson (eds.,), Agama dalam Analisa dan Interpretasi Sosiologis, Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993
Boulan, M.C., Uru: The Son of Sunrise, terj. S.J.M. Sijauta, Belgium: Antrhoplogical Center, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1984
Briedstedt, Robert, The Making of Society, New York: Modern Library, 1959
Chakov, Kelly, Nineteen Century Social Evolutionism, Departement of Anthropological College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama, 2001
Chauvel, Richard, Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Island From Colonialism to Revolt, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1990
Cooley, F.L., Ambonese Adat, New Haven: Yale University – Southeast Asia Studies, 1962
……………., Mimbar dan Takhta: Hubungan Lembaga-lembaga Keagamaan dan Pemerintahan di Maluku Tengah, Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1987
Coser, Lewis A., Master of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context, second edition, New York-Chicago-San Francisco-Atlanta: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977
Eisenstadt, S.N. (eds.,) Readings in Social Evolution and Development, Oxford, London, New York: Pergamon Press, 1970
Greenberg, Joseph H., “Linguistics and Ethnology” dalam Dell Hymes (eds.,) Language in Culture and Society: A reader in Linguistics and Anthropology, New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row Publisher, 1964
Jansen, H.J., “Indigenous Classification System in the Ambonese Moluccas”, dalam De Jong, P.E. De Josselin, Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands, Netherland: Foris Publication Holland/U.S.A, 1983
King, Gail and Meghan Wright, Difusionism and Acculturation, Departement of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama – diakses dari Landis, Paul H., Introductory Sociology, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958
Leirissa, R.Z., et.al., Sejarah Sosial di Daerah Maluku, Jakarta: Dep. Pendidikan & Kebudayaan – Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, 1982/1983
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich, “Cultural Change”, dalam James A. Cliftton (eds.,), Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, New York – Atlanta: Houghton Miffin Company Boston, 1968
Morgan, Lewis A., Ancient Society in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1877
Nanda, Serena, Cultural Anthropology, California: Wadsworth Publ., 1991
Sachse, F.J.P., Seran en Sune Bewonwers, edisi terjemahan oleh T. Tuarissa, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan-Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Ambon, 1996/1997
Schurhammer, Georg, Francis Xavier: His Life, His Time, Vol. III, Indonesia and India 1545-1549, Translated by M. Joseph Castelloe, Itally: The Jesuit Historical Institute, 1980
Scott, W.R., Institution and Organizations, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995
Scott, W.R. & Soren Christensen (eds.,), The Institutional Construction of Organization: International and Longitudinal Studies, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995
Sudjiman, Panuti dan Aart Van Zoest (Peny.,), Serba-serbi Semiotika, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1996
Wouden, F.A.E. Van, Klen, Mithos dan Kekuasaan, Jakarta: Grafiti Press, 1985
[1] F.J.P. Sachse, Seran en Sune Bewonwers, edisi terjemahan oleh T. Tuarissa, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan-Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Ambon, 1996/1997
[2] Baca. F. L. Cooley, Mimbar dan Takhta: Hubungan Lembaga-lembaga Keagamaan dan Pemerintahan di Maluku Tengah, Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1987, atau Cooley, Ambonese Adat, New Haven: Yale University – Southeast Asia Studies, 1962
[3] Baca. Richard Chauvel, Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Island From Colonialism to Revolt, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1990
[4] Baca H.J. Jansen, “Indigenous Classification System in the Ambonese Moluccas”, dalam De Jong, P.E. De Josselin, Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands, Netherland: Foris Publication Holland/U.S.A, 1983, 100-115
[5] Baca M.C. Boulan, Uru: The Son of Sunrise, terj. S.J.M. Sijauta, Belgium: Antrhoplogical Center, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1984, 1,7
[6] Baca Boulan, ibid., 1-3,7
[7] Asa dalam hal ini adalah refleksi ketunggalan mengenai empat elemen dasar dari alam semesta yaitu hawa (udara), api, air dan tanah. Keempat elemen itu ada dalam bumi, yaitu negeri sebagai tempat tinggal masyarakat. Pusat kosmos di negeri sebagai gambaran totalitas adalah baileu.
[8] Konsep itu berpangkal dari carapandang terhadap manusia sebagai totalitas fisik dan psikhis (dimensi antrophomorfis dalam worldview). Baca Boulan, ibid., 1-7. Mengenai sistem hukum, dapat dilihat pada aturan pembayaran denda adat di hampir setiap sub-suku di Maluku. Ada ketentuan pada sisi jumlah barang-barang atau uang yang harus dibayarkan sebagai bentuk sanksi adat, atau aturan hukum, termasuk dalam jumlah barang harta kawin, dll.
[9] Baca Jacob W. Ajawaila, “Orang Ambon dan Peranan Nenek Moyang (Leluhur), makalah diskusi, Ambon, 2000, 2-3
[10] Baca. S. Takdir Alisjahbana, Antropologi Baru, Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, 1986, 25-26
[11] Bnd. Robert N. Bellah, et.al, The Good Society, New York: Vintage Books – A Division of Random House, Inc., 1992, 10-11; R.N. Bellah & Phillip E. Hammoud, Varieties of Civil Religion, San Francisco: Harper & Row Publ., 1980, viii; bnd. W.R. Scott, Institution and Organizations, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995, 33; W.R. Scott & Soren Christensen (eds.,), The Institutional Construction of Organization: International and Longitudinal Studies, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995, xiii
[12] Tentang Wemale dan Alune, lihat Dieter Bartels, In de Schaduw Van de Berg Nunusaku: Een cultuur-historische verhandeling over de bevolking van de Midden-Molukken, Utrecht: Landelijk Steunpunt Edukatie Molukkers, 1994, 35-37
[13] Baca F.A.E. Van Wouden, Klen, Mithos dan Kekuasaan, Jakarta: Grafiti Press, 1985, 143, 144
[14] Cooley, ibid., 1987, 222
[15] Bnd. R.N. Bellah, “Evolusi Agama” dalam Rolland Robertson (eds.,), Agama dalam Analisa dan Interpretasi Sosiologis, Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993, 306 dyb
[16] Migrasi ini yang membidani terbentuknya Sejarah Pela/Gandong di Maluku (Tengah)
[17] Lht. Georg Schurhammer, Francis Xavier: His Life, His Time, Vol. III, Indonesia and India 1545-1549, Translated by M. Joseph Castelloe, Itally: The Jesuit Historical Institute, 1980, 81-2, 85-6
[18] Bnd. R.Z. Leirissa, et.al., Sejarah Sosial di Daerah Maluku, Jakarta: Dep. Pendidikan & Kebudayaan – Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, 1982/1983, 11
[19] Baca Lewis A. Morgan, Ancient Society in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1877, 5,6; bnd. Kelly Chakov, Nineteen Century Social Evolutionism, Departement of Anthropological College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama, 2001; bnd. Serena Nanda, Cultural Anthropology, California: Wadsworth Publ., 1991, 34
[20] Spencer dalam Robert Briedstedt, The Making of Society, New York: Modern Library, 1959, 253-257
[21] Bellah, “Evolusi Agama”, dalam Roland Robertson (eds.,) ibid., 304
[22] Bnd. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, “Cultural Change”, dalam James A. Cliftton (eds.,), Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, New York – Atlanta: Houghton Miffin Company Boston, 1968, 276
[23] Baca S.N. Eisenstadt (eds.,) Readings in Social Evolution and Development, Oxford, London, New York: Pergamon Press, 1970, 153-210
[24] Bnd. Paul H. Landis, Introductory Sociology, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958, 16-18
[25] Ibid., 19
[26] Bnd. Panuti Sudjiman dan Aart Van Zoest (Peny.,), Serba-serbi Semiotika, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1996, vii, 3, dyb.
[27] Joseph H. Greenberg, “Linguistics and Ethnology” dalam Dell Hymes (eds.,) Language in Culture and Society: A reader in Linguistics and Anthropology, New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row Publisher, 1964, 27
[28] Baca Lewis A. Coser, Master of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context, second edition, New York-Chicago-San Francisco-Atlanta: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977, 131; juga Robert N. Bellah (eds.,) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1973, 63-65
[29] Mischa Titiev and Robert H. Winthrop seperti dikutip Gail King and Meghan Wright, Difusionism and Acculturation, Departement of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama – diakses dari

[30] Paul H. Landis, ibid., 65, 67, 70

Tabea Upu Ina Upu Ama

This is my personal blog which contain my ideas. I welcome you to read and give the critical comments. And let us going to progressive discourse! Read More...Baca selanjutnya...

PUTRI BROERY FOLLOW HER FATHER

Putri Broery Pesulima Follow the traces of the father

NEWS - musik.infogue.com - JAKARTA, SENIN - Again, the fruit not falling far from the tree. Daughter (deceased) veteran vocalist Broery Pesulima begin to try the music industry, raising the name of the father.
Nabila Methaya Pesulima daughter, the name of the child Broery. Dara berpanggilan the familiar laya this brings one of the songs for O My God (OMG), wide-screen film comedy drama bergenre the disutradarai by Rako Prijanto and will be released later on August 1. The song is titled Missing created by Nial Djuliarso, young jazz pianists of a famous outside the country, with Vena Annisa. That is the first time the recording laya.
Informed via e-mail by the Oreima Films, which produces OMG, laya now live in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, along with brother lelakinya, Pesulima Indonesia, and his mother, Wanda Irene Latuperisa. There, he was singing at the event-amateur event. At the school, Walt Whitman High School, second year students in drag race sweep vote Walt Whitman Idol.
To support the campaign soundtrack album OMG, some time ago, is still in this month, laya syuting a music video for the song Lost in the USA. Music video is constrained by Ridi Djajakusuma and Irfan Ihsan. In addition to the laya, who took part in the album is another, Mocca and Clubeighties.
If dihubung-connect, have regard, the involvement of laya and Broery existence. OMG in the film, there are scenes Ipin figure, played by desta "Clubeighties," I confess, as Broery children.
Laya confess, some of the world to pull the vote, he is inspired by Broery. "From small I often see Papa manggung, so that inspiration brought up to now," said laya, cited by the Oreima Films. He said also, until now he still carries the love songs that have been sung by Broery.
In order to provide steps to become a professional singer, laya planning department to enter Vocal Performance Berklee College of Music in Boston, Massachusetts (USA). "I want to berkarier such as Papa, and, if more, a troubadour of quality at the international level," he said steadily. Read More...Baca selanjutnya...

HISTORY OF TERNATE

History of Ternate
(By: Busranto Abdullatif Prayer)
Ternate, the most prominent of the four Moluccan sultanates (Ternate, Tidore, Bacan and Jailolo / Gilolo), the date to 1257 AD. The ruling house to its former home for the arrival of the Muslim sage, Sayyid Ja'afar Sadik, but the exact lineage is subject to contradictory genealogies. The genealogies only a sixteenth century from the late Sultan Zainal Abidin Syah.

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The island shares a unique history with the neighboring countries Jailolo, and Tidore Bacan. The four share the same in the past that they formed a legendary cosmic whole, or nearly separate universe. In this universe, each country has a designated place. Ternate form of the most important unit and the authorities is that the term Kolano Moloku (authorities in Maluku). Modern history, however, shows that the position of Ternate owes place military triumphs, successfully concluded and killed when Tidore Jailolo in 1380.
Located in the middle of the "Spice Islands", Ternate beginning to attract traders and European explorers in the sixteenth century. Portuguese is the first start in place and in the local political and religious matters immediately. They make a strong fortress in 1522 and controlled affairs with utter ruthlessness. They kill or oust the government, poisoned heirs, and remove the whole family removed to Malacca. St Francis Xavier visited the island, looking for converts in 1546. The murder of Sultan Jamal ul-Khair [Hairun], immediately after the conclusion of the peace agreement, which finally stirred Moluccans to open rebellion in 1574. Sultan of the new force stormed the fortress of Sao Joao Bautista, taking in St Stephen's Day 1575, and the Portuguese expelled.

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This great victory is not easily forgotten by the Portuguese, Spanish or their successors. The latter sent naval force is strong, which retook the fort in 1606 and removed Sultan Said to Manila. They then set about converting the Sultan and his family to Catholicism.
Coming to the Netherlands in 1599 proved fortuitous Kaicili Muzaffar, the youngest son of Sultan Said. He forged an alliance with the VOC, which allows him to secure the throne in 1607. The Sultan grateful VOC other one is given an exclusive contract with the spices in the concession in 1609. However, the embrace of the VOC prove too constricting, especially after they intervene in the dispute in 1650. Although serious conflict erupted in 1683, the Netherlands is now firmly established at Amboina, and defeat is inevitable. Next, Ternate become effective Dutch protectorate.
Although relations with the Netherlands remain calm, continue with the competition Tidore cause sporadic outbreaks of conflict to the nineteenth century. England took over control from the Dutch East Indies during the Napoleonic Wars. Having recognized "Nuku", a craftsman from the Moluccan affairs as Sultan Tidore, they can be effective in the middle of the peace agreement between the two rivals. However, the peace between the two has never been more than one double and rivalries that continue to this day.
Despite efforts to end the sultanate in 1876 and again in 1916, the Dutch colonial powers changed their mind and relented in the face of popular taste. They restored the sultanate established in 1927 and is no longer trying to destroy the institution.
The years of Japan and post-war period of independence struggle is not easy for the island. He formed an important element in efforts to make the Dutch in Indonesia Federation rivalry to Java republican regime. Sultan presented in several posts, so "to spend his time" in an administrative post in Jakarta, in 1950 after the unification. However, he does not remove the Republicans and the title of honor, and his son and successor should be recognized after his death.
The existence of the sultan remains one of the significant influence, both politically and in the field of religion and culture. Recently, he was very interested to intervene in humiliation riots Christian-Muslim and ethnic disturbances of 1999. He tried to protect minority ethnic groups, followed by the Protestant majority. He exiled government in September 2000.








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BROERY FOTOS

FOTO BROERY

Thank you to all who support the location of their images. Do you have a picture of Broery that you have to be placed on this page?



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Broery and Haron Abdulmajid on WEA, Shaw Tower Singapore, 1978. Haron now he dipensiunkan and enjoy life together with the children and his wife. He lives in Kelantan and Malaysia have in the cafe there



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Broery dan Dewi Yull. artis

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From left: Manager Broery (Berti Lumanauw), staff member and japan Broery the right to contest in japan



Broery with Joy (son of Hemi) and unknown girl. July 1987


Broery with Joy (son Helmi) and Aska Marantika or Utary Sumelang. Photos made in Pasuruan Road No. 24 - Central Jakarta



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Broery and at parent home in Ambon


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Broery with anjing2 kesayangannya of Collie's Scotlandia

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Panas Pela

PANAS PELA

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Procession inscription hot pela Ihamahu two countries - which do Amahai the summer pela Baileo Ihamahu a milestone for the two country. As pela gandong two countries was forbidden marry each other.


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Monday, January 19, 2009

The Kabaresi Heroin of Maluku

The 'Kabaressi' Heroine of Maluku

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Martha Christina Tiahahu statue stands at 8 meters above a monument dedicated to freedom fighter in Ambon, Maluku.

While Ajeng Raden Kartini is known as a heroine of women's emancipation, other national heroines are freedom fighters, such as Cut Nyak Dien in Aceh. In Maluku, the young women who dare to take the decision together with the colleagues of the men's Dutch colony.

Martha Christina Tiahahu.
Christina was born in the village Abubu, Nusalaut Island, on Jan 24, 1800. At age 17, he joined the unit in his father's guerrilla leader, captain Paul Tiahahu, in the resistance movement on the island Nusalaut. They also supported by Pattimura lieutenant, who led the combatants on the island of Saparua Waisisil war against the Netherlands.
Christina struggling in some places, including the island of Saparua against the Dutch commander was killed Richement. Commander Meyer, who replaced Richement, hit shot in the neck during the same battle, Vermeulen Kringer took over command of war in the Dutch troops in Maluku.
Together with his father and the freedom fighters, including the captain Pattimura, Christina was taken and taken by boat to the Netherlands Eversten. All prisoners were punished except Christina, who has been released because of age.

His father, Paul Tiahahu captain, and several other combatants in the Maluku capital punishment.

Tgl, 16 October 1817, Christina and her father brought to Nusalaut. They were held at Fort Beverwijk, Paul 'execution. After his father's death, Christina disappeared into the forest.
In December 1817, Christina and Maluku, and arrested 39 other people with the board Eversten transported to Java, where their labor in the coffee plantation. During the trip, Christina refuse food and refuse medical treatment. He died on Jan. 2, 1818, at sea and her body dumped in the Banda Sea.

National heroine.
After independence, the Indonesian government that the freedom fighter Maluku national heroine, so that each date of January 2 serve as a warning Day Martha Christina Tiahahu. On that day, thousands of flower petals are thrown into the Banda Sea in an official ceremony held each year to celebrate keberaniannya in the struggle for the independence of Indonesia.

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Sunset in the Bay of Ambon in the eyes stare down from the monument Martha Christina Tiahahu, who stood on the top of the hill Karangpanjang in Ambon, Maluku.
In Ambon, Martha Christina Tiahahu Monument, a statue of a woman warrior who stood up to 8 meters, spear in hand, hours on the islands and bays on the hilly area Karangpanjang.
The same monument was established in place of birth, but the picture in the village Abubu look more stout.
Although Christina is shown carrying a spear in the two monuments, in the war against the Netherlands, the legend is that he is truly as stones hurled by Dutch army soldiers when he was running out of ammunition.
Because of the courage he showed resistance to the Netherlands pelurunya only with stones, the Maluku called kabaressi women (brave).
His name also graces the road in a while Karangpanjang Indonesian warship KRI name Martha Christina Tiahahu.
Yop Lasamahu in the book, from Coral Nusalaut flowers (which blooms from coral Nusalaut), has written lengkapsejarah Christina. The author is a former chairman of the Indonesian Journalists Association Maluku.
Bringing him in spirit
Maluku women's group in Jakarta, has established the Foundation Martha Christina Tiahahu, a foundation headed by the social community Maluku Djaelani Mietje Saimima.
Meanwhile, some women activists and journalists in Ambon publish the magazine Martha Christina, inspired by young people in Maluku freedom fighter. Publishing also involved some officials such as Maluku Ulahayanan Lies, head of the Office of Information and Fenno Tahalele, head of Social Affairs.

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The text that is embedded in the bottom of the monument to women's freedom fighter legible: "Martha C. Tijahahu, Sea pearls Nusa (Island), Indonesia's national hero, who fought to remove from Dutch colonizers Maluku, Fall on 2 January 1818.
"Name of the magazine is only intended to show the fighting spirit Martha Christina Tiahahu, and this includes the regular women's affairs in the community," said Lies.
Maluku women's activist Rosa Pentury told The Jakarta Post that Christina's spirit of struggle should be inherited by each generation of women in present-day Maluku, although various conditions that apply now.
He also acknowledges that only a few officials during this marked Martha Christina Tiahahu Day, and much more simple, less teaching of the ceremony held to mark Pattimura Day, which falls on May 15.
Only during this year's 190. Christina's death anniversary was held in commemoration of Abubu page, in addition to the petal ceremony in Banda Sea.
"In the past, the young Christina led armed uprisings against our colonizers. Today, Maluku, women must fight injustice, poverty and other social disparities. The people in the bureaucracy, legislative and social organizations must also strive Christina's great passion for the struggle, "stressed Rosa, the head of the Foundation.





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Baku pukul Manyapu

Baku Pukul Manyapu
The atmosphere in the city of Ambon on Saturday, 20 October 2007, the sudden quiet. As if migration occurs suddenly, thousands of residents in Ambon throng use land and sea transport to the country of Mamala and Morela

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located on the peninsula Leihitu, Central Maluku district. The sky is not cloudy menyurutkan sad for them to step beranjangsana to the two countries are each other across the north of the island of Ambon. Not without a simple matter if the spirit so they burn like that. Section is, in every day that coincided with the seventh day after Idul Fitri or 8 Syawal on dismantling Hijriah, two of the indigenous population groups in the Islamic tradition at a broom or better known as the Baku Pukul Manyapu.

This ritual was conducted for the War Kapahaha, led by captain Tulukabessy Achmad Leakawa alias at the time of first colonization. In this event, each participant is a male speaker of the country is divided into two groups. They must then beaten by merelakan body lidi broom to hurt and bleeding. Each group is given the freedom to beat the opponent by using the broom lidi alternately. Lidi used in this event is not any lidi. Lidi used lidi is derived from sago palm sized big enough. Lidi length ranges from 1.5 to 2 meters, while the base diameter lidi reaching 1 to 3 centimeters. It is not surprising that the participants in the neck wound that just get worse. However, there is not a unique one of those who feel the pain.

Before the event started the participants gathered in a place of prayer for the elders of the traditional procession that took place smoothly and all participants were given safety. Next, they must run around the village together.

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Although residents of Mamala and Morela Islamite, before the tradition is always well attended by mainly by the Christians who came from countries that have kinship [pela] is the second country. Mamala pela country has with the country Lateri, while the country Morela berpela with Waai country.

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Manyapu raw materials at the event held in the Mosque of Mamala and Morela and also attended by Governor of Maluku, Karel Albert Ralahalu. Before the event started core, visitors disuguhi various events ranging from the band's local, traditional dances, to a musical performance of the country pela Christian.


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Arrived in the mosque, the participants Pukul Manyapu greeted royally. They live around the field accompanied cheering spectators all the stuff that has been field and terrace mosque. The participants, amounting to about 60 people came to the holding of tens of lidi. They use only the shorts with two different colors and be naked chest. The team with the white pants wear headgear is white, while the team with the color red trousers using red headband.

Each group from each team are then face each other. With command of the match leader, Pukul Manyapu any ritual began. Shush ... plaque plaque ... ...! Beep lidi sago leaves berkelebat in the air when dipukulkan to the body. Groups

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Get a direct hit innings melecutkan lidi them to groups that turn to get beaten with lidi. Rules that must be held, the group hit a new group can beat the other after the command of the rivalry. Turnover was made when the participants are approaching the place where the audience on the edge field. Spectators on the edge of the field also reciprocate the rhythm of the participants. Spectators will move forward if the participants are opposed to the side, but will be back when the move towards them. This is done in order to avoid spectators prod lidi. Sabetan little affected by the end of the lidi felt quite hot in the skin. Sketch former staggerer lidi any imprint on the entire body of participants. Fresh blood flowing from the wounds resulting from prod lidi. However, most participants still follow the procession to complete.


At Manyapu After the procession, the body of the participants in the country Mamala a bloody tasala treated with oil or oil mamala, which is a special oil that is made to treat the injured participants. Unlike the country Mamala, Morela country in the scar is usually treated with gum leaf distance. There is no rancor between them. Visitors also do not forget to take gets lidi-lidi that has been used during the procession. Have to take that as a memento, or there may also wish to try the test with a broom nyali at lidi Arriving at the house? Nothing ever know.

At Manyapu, in the annual tradition of Mamala-Morela

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PUKUL MANYAPU not more foreign citizens ditelinga Maluku, particularly Ambon Island inhabit. Full religious rituals and traditional feel of this show is performed every 7 Syawal Hijriah Village Mamala and Morela Village, Leihitu District, Central Maluku regency. To cover these two villages, located in the northern island of Ambon this can be accessed using land transportation from the city of Ambon, the distance of 26 kilometers.

This traditional rite attractions packed in dozens of young people both the village. They were divided into two groups each other and stimulate the body to the opposite lidi, bone enau leaves. At the same time Manyapu progress in Mamala and Morela, page mosque in each village. Before entering the arena, the youth ran this first besiege village.

Mutual attraction whip this injury resulted in sekujur body. After the attraction, which have wound be oiled coconut oil that has been read verses in the holy Qur'an sekujur body injury. Coconut oil is used to heal wounds nutritious quickly without leaving the former.

Stories from the local community, the oil is used to connect a broken wooden mosque. Kisahnya, colonialism in the Netherlands, the island of Ambon residents to resistance which is known by the name Kapahaha War (1943-1646). After the war, the Netherlands intruksi issued to residents who inhabit the mountains down to build a village in the coastal beaches. The people who follow the teachings of Islam are coming down the mountain and build a colony on the coast.

Because the opening of the new, the mosque is also built. During the middle of the mosque, one of the stanchion was broken mosque. The customs and religion of the Imam Mosque of Imam Tuni, Head of Government Indigenous Mamala Latulehu and Large Wind Patikiambessy, deliberation and ask Imam Tuni bermunajab to Allah SWT, seeking help for the settlement of the mosque.

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While sleeping at night, Imam Tuni were an old grandfather who says do not need to take heart. Grandfather gave advice in order to be lubricated with a broken timber of coconut oil that has been read prayers from the holy Qur'an verses, and then dibalut with white cloth. The instructions are delivered to the dream Latulehu, Imam Tuni requested further instructions implement the dream.

In the evening, broken wood and coconut oil be smeared white closed. Next day when the cloth was opened, broken wood ignites the magic was back. Coconut oil with a reading prayers that became known by the name of Oil Tasala or Mamala oil. The descendants of Imam Tuni until now still make oil and useful as a wound healer. This nutritious oil pembuatannya if the process is done at night 7 Syawal Hijiriah.

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After the broken wooden mosque in miraculous connected, Mamala Oil khasiatnya then tested on how to stimulate the human body with a broom sekujur to lidi injured. Broken skin due to lacing lidi then be lubricated with oil, and the wound was healed as they are.

"Current ago when it became a tradition in our village. At this Manyapu become customary ritual performed every 7 Syawal, "said Mamala King Abdullah Malawat.

At this ritual Manyapu became characteristic of the two villages. When perayaannya be interesting spectacle held every citizen because many visitors who come from other regions. In addition to local visitors, this attraction is also very attractive for foreign tourists. By Office of Tourism Maluku, traditions entered this event in the calendar of tourism Maluku. (Agil)

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