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Tuesday, January 20, 2009

THREE STONE FIRE PLACE

THREE STONE fireplace:

By. Elifas Tomix Maspaitella
1. It is important, be aware
TEXT is a summary and reflection on advanced Thesis I write in 2001 at the Satya Wacana Christian University - Salatiga. After re-read the thesis, academic speculation bring a cultural awareness, the various mechanisms of social control that actually has no culture in our society in Maluku. Three stone hearth (TBT) in defenisi is one of them, in addition to some that deserve as called Masohi, hamaren, sosoki, badati, sasahil, etc.. However, specification of TBT on the network located in the terpintal. Generally, the system of cooperation TBT is known in all the land (Christian) in Maluku, which consists of elements from the Government Affairs, Assembly of the Church (Church), and the Council of Teachers (Education).
In the lands of Islam, this system is commonly called the Elders Teru. This system is generally developed in the lands of Islam Leihitu, consisting of Siatawa - King Hitu - Timu Lau. With a slightly different pattern in Christian countries, this is the style of government as a place of King Hitu center (centrum) government, and Siatawa and Timu Lau, is a network of government that oversees the areas of governance in the area Hitu it. This system is then developed specifically in Tial as a pattern of social structure.
Principally, what is in tatters pelembagaan TBT, he still is a social mechanism of cooperation that can contribute to the positive development of the country. Even in the era otonomisasi, with strong emphasis on the revitalization of traditional systems of cooperation adatis such as this can also be part of a system of social control and strengthening the network in the framework of civil society at large.
2. TBT term future
I certainly will not explain in detail the history of TBT here. Some key events in the history of organizing TBT, and pergeserannya due to the influence, were presented to try pemaknaan cultural basis of this system.
TBT term became part of the cultural system semantics people Maluku. Even as the elements of stone materials in the term that has become a sign of a culture that has a link to the sacred values of the Moluccas.
Formulation sei hatu Hale, hetu lisa Pei; sei lesi sou, sou lesi ei - who bale stone, stone tindis him; who Langgar oath, sumbah kill him - is the formulation of laws, where a stone material legalization, which diparalelkan with "legal" .
In that framework, the stone is also the center ritus klen and / or community in the country. This is seen through the stone teung owned by each country and also the SOA. Teung stone was a sign that restrict the legal settlement antarsoa environment. Ema in, for example, in front of each stone teung, is an old house each SOA. In some countries, there are stone pamale in each baileu.
Some environmental settlement or sacred place in the mythology of the Maluku also contain the term stone. Such as, stone tables, karbou stone, brick, stone koneng, gong stone, stone capeu, hanging stone, stone months, marael stone, stone pit, stone babunyi, etc..
TBT is called in its own whim term, such as TBT, Three stone fireplace, three stove, oven Three. Variety is the designation comes from the sacred centers in each country.
In Suli, is the term used fireplace Three. This term comes from the stacks of stone resembling a stone fireplace at the beach as a symbol Suli relationship Pela Suli-Waai-Kaibobo. Third is the stone representation of the third country in question. This term is then transferred to mention the system of cooperation antarinstitusi earlier in the TBT.
Unlike the case in Rutung, the term used is stone fireplace Three, which comes from the stacks of stone lieutenant, malesi stone and stone mauweng in their old country. Third is the rock in the center of the country beileu in the old country, as a representative on the collective leadership of the country. This term also transferred ago to take the system of cooperation TBT earlier.
In Hatalai, stacks of stone in the stone marawel, or usually referred to as stone resin fuel, the use of the term as a source of stone fireplace, antarinstitusi for cooperation in the TBT. However, in Akoon (Nusa Sea), justu pengistilahan TBT from the position of the Church, and SD Baileu resembles a stack stone fireplace. People Ohoiwait in Kei Islands, thus using this term to be on the order of the stone fireplace in favor woma (old country) for them.
In every country there will be a fad pengistilahan to the resources that made specific reference pengistilahan it. However, in general, each term was used as a relationship of cooperation antarinstitusi representation of the Government, Assembly of the Church, and Education.
3. Overview of History
I will only set back the records etnografis us. Relations, social institutions in the countries in the (Christian) has presented a palpable by L. Frank Cooley. We will criticize Cooley, because he saw a conflict antarinstitusi phenomenon, and forget a mechanism of conflict that have been actually in the countries, even where examine Cooley (Allang, Soya).
The mechanism of conflict antarinstitusi was TBT. Etnografis research proves that the mechanism of cooperation that TBT is now, is the transfer or modification on the same system, which has been in the remote ancestor.
Formation can be seen in the initial composition Saniri Three Air Batang - Eti - tune - Sapalewa, where the meeting place in the formation of water that reflect terstrukturnya elements indigenous leaders of each tributary. However, in the structure of the small, visible in kolektifitas leadership Latu, the customs and Mauweng. This is the third element in a government bond of social custom. Latu is responsible for all segments of living people, especially government. In certain matters he was assisted by the customary chief, as executive and supervisory practices customary society, and mauweng to organize ritus custom or religion. The three elements of this structure does not reflect a separate, but that full commitments to one another. Stress tasks and fell heavily on the role of responsibility adatis community. Support the implementation of a customs duty.
This structure is changed at the time of entry of the influence of Christianity, especially the Netherlands. Because the Portuguese are not open to change society in order adatis Maluku (Central). Changes in the status and position latu to the king, the formation of TBT also changed significantly. Moreover, when the position and role mauweng tereduksi and replaced by the Church, in this case Priest. Immediately going large-scale attacks against the indigenous. Contain elements deemed customary disbelief, a justification western theology and philosophy, which apparently also participated in theology and philosophy mereduksi culture of the Moluccas.
At the same time, the position of head of customs in teralienasi to the Government Affairs, as a symbol of secular power, and was replaced by Education / Teacher Djoemat, which is also part of the Church. Because at that time, and was organized by the school as part of penginjilan. Then we have a new dimension of TBT in the formation of the Government Affairs - Assembly of the Church - the Council of Teachers, as there is at this time.
When applied to the system of government according to Law no.5/1979 on Village Governance system, changes the structure Saniri Affairs, have been making System TBT termarginalisasi, because the bureaucracy LMD / LKMD has taken control of the government control the village.
Cooperation mechanism is not as effective as TBT run before, even in Christian countries, the only visible activity rituals (Ibadah TBT), which became part of the general policy of the Church. A movement space TBT social responsibility that makes this system is becoming increasingly lost rancu and social reliability.
3.1. Social Roots TBT System
The root of the social system in the Maluku TBT pattern exists in the relationship antarinstitusi-social institutions in the country of each other. Runutan history depth research requires, in addition to the availability of ethnographic material which explicitly describe the system and implied that TBT. Presumably ethnographic materials that do not even provide a limited picture of the specific system. This system does not appear in some of the explicit material on the ethnography Maluku. F.J.P. Sachse

describe the social system of the period before the entry of foreign influence, especially on the island of Seram. Cooley only arrived in the detection of the social factors in the socio-cultural relations between the religious institution (church) with the government, conflict and the reality that the two institutions. Chauvel illustrate the development and participation of government institutions (the King), Education and the Church in the dynamics of local politics since 1880-1950. Jansen is only explicitly mentions TBT (fire place, three fire), especially in Tial (Salam and Sarane) as part of the system teru elders in Hitu.
Therefore the reconstruction of historical reference systems old (old) as the original model of the new system, as the motivation and values that membidani terbentuknya cooperation antarinstitusi or antarelemen social, as well as factors that cause changes and / or development of social structures in society .
a. The nature of Maluku: Crawl to the community in cosmology
Actions in the social scale because of the encouragement shown any kognisi and motor community. There is the emergence of a basic motivation of social action. What Elizabeth Traube views on the relationship between the framework of social order with the cosmos that is able to explain the views of the world or cosmology membidani a succession of social action.
The emphasis on aspects kosmologis here is to the pattern of views of the world (worldview) about the community and the pattern kognisi in ceremony and the traditional territory of the country. The personal is every member of human society that has the physical structures, as envisaged in the division of anatomy by Boulan, that the human body consists of the uru or Ulu (head over to the center), the hesam hesa or despair hesam (central region), and the hatu (terj. Stone, foundations, alas), which is down to the foot of the center. Where hesam hesa is bertemunya the uru and hatu. Anatomy shows that the structure of totality perspective with emphasis on the center as a meeting place, each element.
Perspective is a totality in carapandang totality of the community as a community to uphold the traditional rules adatnya. Each member of the community have an obligation to meet all the customary rules from birth until death. All his life movement dilingkupi by custom. In the framework of the traditional elements are important in the implementation by each member of indigenous community. On the person-it appears that a person holding the office customs, such as the customs and mauweng (priest / clergy customary).
Perspektif totality and centralistic and concepts of the balance of the procedure and color patterns solemnization custom. Centralistic pattern visible on the views on Nunusaku Center (Three meetings Batang Air: Eti, tune, Sapalewa) as a community center cosmic origin and human Seram Maluku. Seram island believed as Nusa Ina (Mother Island), as well as makrokosmos also Baileu in the country. The implementation of the customary ceremonies focused on specific places, such as the Old Country, Stone Teung Affairs, Teung Soa, Baileu, Old House / Tau Ruma, etc..
The concept of balance can be seen through the structures marks (sign), which refer to the values such as trust in the system (the concept of oneness or Asa in nature), social systems (as the totality of territory genealogis - Asa in the day-to-day life or in the country ), Asa concept in the human body, and the legal system, especially in terms of customary law nominalitas.
Asa in the belief system (religion tribe) is a reflection of the oneness Upu Ila (h) Kahuressi as the Creator of the universe. In the totality of the universe consists of Asa Upu Ila (h) (as the Creator), Heaven and Earth (as creation). Cosmos divided up on the environment, occupied by Upu Lanite (= sky god), and the environment take (= country), residential community, occupied by Upu Ume / Upu Tepele (= God's earth). Both the environment is one that ties cosmos, not a system hierarkhis. Supreme being (Upu) have in the cosmic totality, together with men. Upu and society in the whole cosmos with the role and functions of the different.
Asa Kosep realized in the country's territory as a socio-genealogis, where people live, the territory's socio-genealogis alliance klen, or SOA. Soa-SOA divide the region in their respective territories of the country, and limit antarteritori marked with stones teung. Green land is divided into common areas and Lao virgin (top and bottom areas, or areas to the sea and the mountains to the area). There is also the country and old country, and the totality of the land area is covered by regular ewang - the country (the limit of the mountain foot to the coastal beaches) - Sea.
In the land classification system is also visible in the social structures. Soa as a social unit, which consists of some of the house divided into two forms, namely SOA batih the detective in the original house in the country and the SOA anaueng spier house immigrants from other countries and settle in a particular country. Each SOA are Soa Head, who is also a member Saniri Affairs, together with the King, as the leaders of the community, assisted by the devices of other officials such as lieutenant, malessi, and marinyo.
Asa built the concept from the perspective totality. Understand the community as a totality kosmosnya not dikotomis phenomenon. So that the administration does not lead to the cosmos antagonism parts, does not also refer to the pattern ordinatif and subordination, or hierarkhis. Cosmos is a totality. The principle of totality mengitegrasikan elements that differ, so it seems is the relationship of each part is balanced. The dominance of a small element of the other, as far as each element function effectively. Differences exist only on the function, position and place in which an element is located.
Natural pattern kognisi mind or what people in the totality dibahasakan perspective, centralistic and balance (equalibrium) will be in perspective and look menafsir data, especially the relationship antarinstitusi in TBT.
b. History Perkemangan Social System
Social institutions according to R.N. Bellah is a form of action ekspetasi from individuals and groups that take place through social sanctions, both positive and negative. Institutions is a form of normative and held through the laws and customs (mores - the formal traditions and practices). Term is the concrete in the form of an organization. Bellah antra distinguish institutions and social organizations with a view on the correlation between institutions and organizations, as if only thinking about the organization and not to the institution, which means we tend to simplify the problem indeed. The core of the institution is cooperation (coorporation) and tangggungjawab (responsibility).
In the complex social institutions is a mechanism of social welfare developed to achieve together. Government as part of a pattern of institutionalization is a control system that is above all the secular segments of society. System of government is starting from the time of the ancestors, although with jabaran tasks, functions and the division that is still simple.
Remote ancestors on the Maluku people (in the Seram Island) there are two tribes that Wemale and Alune. In tribes that live groups, small community that is family (marked with the family name), which formed a coalition of the house. Groups of houses consist of several families who came from a single ancestor. Spier house and joined in a social unit called SOA.
Each led by a SOA Upu, and occupy the territory or Secure Hena. Each share the SOA area, where the limit antarsoa marked tengan stone teung. Homogeneous population patterns, both in the composition of SOA and leadership roles. No division of tasks and a clear authority.
Led by a secure Upu. Because originally upu SOA is also a leader, then the Upu lead a safe Amanupui called normal, or in a certain place called Latu-Aman Nusa In organizing social pattern began to develop. Cooley wrote that "upu responsible for all worldly affairs. In matters of war he is assisted by a malessi. Meanwhile, religious affairs and "the world" held by mauweng and pembantunya malimu or maitale. The composition of leadership that called Saniri Affairs.
The pattern of social responsibility and the role of the point that there is no difference (differentiation) in the light pattern pengorganiasian community. Roles are simple, including segments of limited social, related to how life in the community and how the relationship with the world. Weight of the role held by the figures kharismatik in the community.
SOA slowly be great. Appear to expand the territory of both spontaneous and social aggression. War antarsuku Wemale and Alune for example in the history of the migration Wemale in Honitetu with Alune in Rumberu (Seram Bagian Barat) shows that the conflict became one of the efforts the establishment of new territories. Bulge members SOA (fertility) and / or encourage the expansion of social conflicts to expand and / or to explore new territory outside Seram. There were several migration waves of the house or on a Secure SOA / Hena from Seram Island to the islands of Ambon-Lease (Ulias). During the migration ancestor some migrant groups led by a lieutenant. In the country's new structure and system of government is safe. The only head of government is the captain, replacing the position Amanupui / Nusa-Latu, assisted by Malessi and Mauweng. Pembantu-adjuvant is marinyo and other kewang. The period of relatively short lieutenant; more related to the seizure or the determination of the new territory. Until the determination of a territory defenitif, lieutenant still works for some time until the new diangkatnya Amanupui.
At the time of the expansion occurred almost simultaneously from the kingdom of Ternate and Tidore to Ambon-Lease, which result in terbentuknya alliance Uli, consists of several groups Secure / Hena. Uli system itself does not have a clear leadership hierarkhi. Evidence about the structure and history of leadership in the pattern Uli be difficult. But the general impression of the material etnografis existing system and that there is still Uli (Uli Hatuhaha eg - on the island of Haruku) presumably Uli coordinate system is a political antarAman / Hena; especially with a line pattern keleluhuran and social regulation (similar) same . In this case the Central Maluku call Pata - Pata Siwa, Pata Lima, Southeast Maluku people call Ur - Ur Siw, Ur Lim.
In Uli, each headed by Aman Upu or Latu its own. Safe for that demographic a bit, led by Patih or Rich People, and each has a secure autonomous status.
Uli system to survive the influence of the entrance to West Maluku. Portuguese entry to Maluku (1511/12) or the Island of Ambon (1525) does not mereduksi ago systems asali to the political system in the style of the West. Portuguese league would use the local-political alliance for the purpose of helping ekspansinya (economic). In the history of Catholic mission on the island of Ambon, Xavier Fanciscus use Uli alliance in order to coordinate the services in the country that some dikunjunginya. For example, Ema serve as the central church of the countries that joined in Uli Ema, Ema namely, Hukurila, Leahari and Rutung.
Different attitude with the Portuguese, the VOC would be. Alliance-league changed the local political systems, with the new. Alliance-alliance Uli cleared the way up to the republic-republic country (17th century). Safe Territory / Hena moved from the mountains to the coastal beaches to facilitate the chain VOC control in the set, take the path of trade and the spice (clove).
Diangkatlah King, direct descendants of the house or Upu that adatis entitled to occupy the position that, so it can be understood that the King in adatis structure is the new name for Upu or Nusa-Latu, the leaders of the community. If Upu identical to the house, and Amanupui Nusa Latu-identical with the Secure / Hena, the country synonymous with the King. In conducting its work, assisted by staff Saniri Affairs, which consists of the Head of Soa. Government affairs in the field of security by the country dipegango captain and Malessi. Other officials is marinyo, the "spokesman" The King, who served all the results Saniri decision to the public. Religious affairs held by a mauweng, or also almanan, and kewang as supervisors petuanan area (land and sea) and land borders of the land antarsoa with one another.
Changes in social structures is the fact evolutif community development or social-cultural community. On the evolution of community / social, Lewis A. Morgan see levels of the lowest stage of development, mid and high. In another term, Morgan mentions that the development of adari stage savagery, barbarism and civilization. Level changes occur through lower - medium - savagery upper, lower - medium - barbarism upper and lower - medium - upper civilization, which is determined by technological factors. Evolution or "progresi" in the Morgan show strong factors in the environment of the community. There is awareness of the collective experience and because of environmental factors.
On the other hand, Herbert Spencer to see the evolution of a culture defined by actions outside the accepted by the community (diffusion). There are progressive changes in the environmental community at a glance, we looked at the form of asilnya. The change is possible because the community participated divide roles and functions that are different. At the level of Robert N. Bellah mendefenisikan:
Evolution is a process of increasing differentiation and complexity of the organization to provide organism, social system or perhaps any unit, with a greater ability to adapt to the environment so that the system is relatively more autonomy to the environment than the system that is less complex at the time fathers.
In general, the evolution of culture in a different environment with other environments. Each environment to measure the growth and / or changes due to the influence of different. Because of the theory of evolution is useful to explain why and how the changes that occur. In connection with the organization or social institutions, the evolution of the changes and / or development in the role and function of structural elements of social tiaptiap.
3.2. Factors Terbentuknya TBT
At least two factors that cause terbentuknya TBT, which is [a] factor kosmologis and [b] social factors.
[a] factor Kosmologis
The emergence of TBT can not be released from the perspective of the basic motivation and the community. Perspective is envisaged in view of their world, which appears in the myths and symbols used by the community (as to a particular message).
Materials myth Maluku community structures show the value of the occurrence of an alliance of life (eg myths pela). In addition there is also the use of symbols to provide a basis for the legitimacy of the alliance life. In pela myth can be seen various symbols. Pela in the form of blood, blood is a symbol of legitimacy pela alliance.
In addition to the blood, the stone is also a symbol of legitimacy pela, for example, between the country Kaibobu (West Seram), Waai and Suli (Ambon Island - Leihitu). Symbols pela third country in the country Suli, and known by the name of TBT. Where each stone is a representation of a third country. While the stone as a symbol of legalization pela Golf and Hukurila (Ambon Island - Leitimor) known by the name of the stone cut tusa (cat).
Another thing is that in the formulation of legalization pela oath: sei hatu Hale, lisa hatu Pei; sei lesi sou, sou lesi ei - terj. Who reverse / unload stacks of stone, stone [capsize squash) tindis him, who violate the oath, swearing to kill him. In the formulation of the oath dianalogikan with stones (hatu).
Stone here has a sacred meaning in the structure of society kosmologis Maluku. customs in each country have generally teung stone, stone door of the country, pamali stone, etc.. In the countries terentu also known lieutenant stone, stone malessi, stone mauweng (in Rutung called Three Stone fireplace), there is also a milestone Latusia (stone cat in Hukurila). Even baileu country Hukurila and Soya is the order of the stones that resembles a space where consensus. Among the piles of stone that is the king of rock, stone lieutenant, SOA stone heads, stone bastori (= platform). Sacred places in Rutung, Ema, Soya have called stone drinking water, and called on Hatalai stone marawel.
Even the location of some settlements in the South was named to the terms of stone, such as Batu Gajah, Batu Meja, Batu Gong, Batu Gantung, Batu Bulan. There are also places such as Batu mitologis nuances Capeu, Babunyi Stone, Stone hole, etc.. Naming has myth each.
Kosmologis factors that show that in order memaknai TBT didekati from some local pengistilahan (ordinary language) about the system in question. The terms of the local al: Three oven, stove Three, stone fireplace, stone fireplace Three, and three stone hearth. There is a special social background membidani use of the terms in which it is used. The three terms refer to the hearth of a system of government in Teru Elders Hitu. This term is visible in the social structure in Tial, as one of the areas of power Hitu. Three fire system in Tial consists of Siatawa - King Hitu - Timu Lau. The composition of Hitu place as the central structure.
Suli known in Three istila fireplace, which comes from the mythical history Pela Kaibobu, Waai, and Suli. Pela sign that the relationship is three pieces of stone placed in the coastal area of Suli as representatives third country in question. Third rock known as the Three fireplace. The term was later transferred to mention the system of cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, and Education by the Church community Suli, Waai and also Kaibobu.
While the term stone fireplace in the Three Rutung based on the order of the lieutenant stone, stone malessi, and stone mauweng the country's new squeeze (the king of rock) in the old country. The term is translated directly to his system of cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, Education and the Church. Thus, the terms that refer to the system of social classification is available in the history of social community.
Hatalae in cooperation antarinstitusi Government Affairs, Education and the Church called stone fireplace. This term is also transferred directly from the same terms that refer to the order of the country's old stone (stone marawael) as a sacred place where people Hatalae. The order of the rock is often called the "stone resin fuel", because in the first place that people usually burn the resin as a means of long explanation.
On the lands on the island of Ambon, the term generally refers to the TBT cooperation antarPemerintah Affairs, the Church and Education. This model of cooperation developed from old institution that is the relationship between the traditional and Mauweng Nusa Latu, and the latest reality community, especially the complexity of social organizations bersamam with the social system itself.
In my experience, when the entrance to the Gospel of Maluku, there is a conflict between government institutions land (customary representations) and the church and education (Christian representation). Conflict antarinstitusi that encourage the emergence of social awareness and actions that lead to the invention culture through the creation of mechanisms TBT.
Variants of the term that can be said that TBT has a meaning denotatif (sintagmatik) and konotatif (paradigmatik). Denotatif meaning of TBT to the stone as a natural element that is used as a symbol of legalization alliance life. Here, TBT is the order of three pieces of stone untk place of cooking (fire stone). Fuel used is wood. Wood switched the order of three pieces of stone placed above the pot, frying pan, or similar equipment. How is called folkways, namely how to do things that are already in the habit of a special group of people. If the habit is still done from generation to generation, sooner or later will result in a correct way. If so then going to the folkways of a particular framework of norms. People no longer beraktifitas because of habit, but because there are norms that must be obeyed. That means folkways become mores a way that is efficient and can heat or received or folkways of dirasionalkan
The konotatif TBT refer to the social system. Symbols natural switch function as a sign (sign) representas refer to the meaning of a social system. An important element here is the sign, sign it themselves, who use sign it, and what or who are appointed by the sign.
Three stone hearth is a sign pointing to the existence of three social institutions, namely the Government Affairs, Education and the Church. The three institutions are represented by one of the stone composition in the TBT. Shifted its functions, is no longer a place for cooking habits as (folkways) community, but the analogik "to make the country". The location of the kitchen moved to a social environment that is a wider community. No longer in the domestic environment, but the public.
Stone is no longer refer to a natural element, but representatives from the institutions of government, church and education. Batu mengandung makna sosial yang luas, dan tidak menunjuk pada person tertentu dalam masing-masing institusi, melainkan kolektifitasnya. Secara fisik batu itu harus sama besar agar ada keseimbangan, karena itu tidak ada dominasi satu terhadap lainnya.
[b] Faktor sosial budaya
Rujukan yang paling adekuat untuk menunjuk kepemimpinan Tiga unsur adalah dalam formasi Saniri Tiga Batang Air: Eti – Tala – Sapalewa di Pulau Seram. Dalam waktu-waktu yang telah ditentukan, Saniri Tiga Batang Air ini bertemu untuk membicarakan masalah hidup bersama.
Dalam formasi pemerintahan negeri, kepemimpinan tiga unsur dikembangkan dalam formasi tetap: Raja – Kepala adat – Mauweng. Namun formasi itu tidak bertahan lama, digantikan dengan formasu baru pada saat masuknya injil ke negeri-negeri di Maluku, maka terbentuklah TBT dalam: Pemerintah Negeri – sebagai representasi lebaga adat dan sosial masyarakat, Gereja untuk melakukan tugas pelayanan keagamaan dan kehidupan berjemaat, dan Pendidikan yang diarahkan pada pengembangan sumber daya manusia dan peran penyeimbang.
Formasi TBT yang baru ini membuat gereja dan pendidikan menggantikan kedudukan kepala adat dan mauweng dalam formasi dasarnya. Pelibatan unsur pendidikan ke dalam sistem kerjasama TBT merupakan sebuah mekanisme pencairan ketegangan antara institusi Pemerintah Negeri dengan gereja atas klaim-klaim sosial terhadap masyaraka/jemaat. Namun realitas ketegangan itu sebetulnya berpangkal pada perbedaan carapandang mengenai siapakah masyarakat itu. Pemerintah Negeri sebagai pemegang otoritas sekuler mengklaim masyarakat sebagai komunitas adat yang terorganisasi di dalam satu lingkungan sisstem sosial negeri. Berbeda dengan itu, gereja memandang masyarakat sebagai jemaat dan oleh sebab itu memiliki tingkat kepatuhan kepada hukum-hukum gerejawi (agama Kristen Protestan).
Kedua bentuk klaim itu merupakan sebuah pertentangan kosmologis yang berimplikasi pada pengenaan status ganda kepada setiap anggota masyarakat. Di satu pihak adalah anggota masyarakat yang terhisab ke dalam sistem sosial negeri, dan di pihak lain adalah anggota jemaat yang terhisab ke dalam sistem sosial gereja. Penetapan status ganda itu menyebabkan segregasi dan pengelompokkan dalam masyarakat/jemaat. Kondisi itu dirasakan tidak menguntungkan, oleh sebab itu perlu dicari mekanisme yang lebih baik. Masyarakat belajar kembali pada pengalaman masa lampau, bahwa perluada perikatan hubungan antarinstitusi yang dapat membawa kepada kesejahteraan rakyat. Ada jaringan yang hilang ketika gereja mengambil alih keseluruhan dimensi religiositas masyarakat. Peran pendampingan dalam sistem pemerintahan adat yang semula menjadi tugas mauweng yang kini berada di tangan Pendeta agaknya kurang efektif dalam menjalankan fungsi dimaksud. Alasannya pendeta telah memposisikan diri sebagai representasi institusi gereja yang mau tidak mau berada berhadap-hadapan dengan pemerintah negeri.
Dalam kondisi itulah, pelibatan unsur pendidikan signifikan untuk menjaga tatanan kohesif dan kesejahteraan tadi. Adapun beberapa faktor sosial-budaya yang sebagai faktor pembentuk sistem TBT a.l:
[1] Pertambahan jumlah pendiduk sebagai akibat dari pertambahan jumlah anggota dalam satu mata rumah. Hal ini membawa dampak sosial yaitu pelembagaan yang lebih meluas, meliputi klen, atau suku. Secara struktural terbentuklah persekutuan soa yang terdiri dari beberapa mata rumah. Kompleksitas masalah sosial muncul seiring dengan perubahan komposisi kependudukan. Muncul solidaritas sosial secara mekanis yang mendorong perubahan dalam sistem sosial masyarakat (community).

[2] Faktor demografis mendorong ekspansi dan migrasi sosial. Perpindahan geo-sosial sekaligus terjadi juga perpindahan geo-budaya. Pelembagaan masyarakat di tempat yang baru membutuhkan penyesuaian-penyesuaian seadanya dengan situasi lingkungan yang baru pula. Faktor ini dapat menyebabkan perubahan-perubahan tertentu dalam sistem sosial dari tempat asal. Ada penyesuaian-penyesuaian yang dilakukan.
[3] Migrasi sosial membawa dampak langsung dalam budaya masyarakat yaitu difusi budaya. Secara teoretik difusi budaya ialah penyebaran satu unsur budaya dari tempat asalnya ke tempat lain, atau proses di mana unsur-unsur budaya tertentu ditransfer dari satu masyarakat ke masyarakat lainna melalui migrasi, perdagangan, peperangan atau bentuk-bentuk kontak lainnya Paul Landis menegaskan bahwa difusi budaya mempertemukan dua karakter budaya yang berbeda dalam satu lingkungan. Dari polanya Landis menggolongkan difusi budaya ke dalam, pertama, purposeful – yaitu penyebaran unsur budaya tertentu yang dilakukan oleh seseorang atau sekelompok orang secara sengaja ke dalam suatu lingkungan tertentu lainnya.
Contohnya penyebaran agama Kristen dan Islam. Kedua, nonpurposeful – yaitu penyebaran suatu unsur budaya tertentu di mana seseorang atau sekelompok orang tidak bermaksud menemukan suatu tempat di dalam lingkungan budaya lainnya. Ada kondisi-kondisi tertentu dari suatu proses difusi. Pertama, difusi mendorong terjadinya modifikasi unsur-unsur budaya tertentu dari lingkungan yang didatangi oleh pengaruh luar, kedua, unsur-unsur budaya setempat berakulturasi dengan unsur budaya baru yang masuk, ketiga, resistensi budaya (cultural inertia) setempat sehingga tetap menjadi struktur yang dominan dalam lingkungannya (menjurus pada akulturasi budaya).
[4] Tingkat kemajemukan yang tinggi dalam kelompok sosial maupun meningkatkan kebutuhan masyarakat menjadi penyebab lain dari pergeseran dan perubahan dalam sistem sosial. Ini dapat dilihat dalam sketsa di atas.
[5] Dinamika dan perubahan tata politik lokal karena tata politik universal dapat mendorong perubahan-perubahan dalam sistem budaya lokal.
Kepustakaan:
Ajawaila, Jacob W., “Orang Ambon dan Peranan Nenek Moyang (Leluhur), makalah diskusi, Ambon, 2000
Alisjahbana, S. Takdir, Antropologi Baru, Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, 1986
Bartels, Dieter, In de Schaduw Van de Berg Nunusaku: Een cultuur-historische verhandeling over de bevolking van de Midden-Molukken, Utrecht: Landelijk Steunpunt Edukatie Molukkers, 1994
Bellah, Robert N. (eds.,) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1973
Bellah, R.N. & Phillip E. Hammoud, Varieties of Civil Religion, San Francisco: Harper & Row Publ., 1980
Bellah, Robert N., et.al, The Good Society, New York: Vintage Books – A Division of Random House, Inc., 1992
Bellah, R.N., “Evolusi Agama” dalam Rolland Robertson (eds.,), Agama dalam Analisa dan Interpretasi Sosiologis, Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993
Boulan, M.C., Uru: The Son of Sunrise, terj. S.J.M. Sijauta, Belgium: Antrhoplogical Center, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1984
Briedstedt, Robert, The Making of Society, New York: Modern Library, 1959
Chakov, Kelly, Nineteen Century Social Evolutionism, Departement of Anthropological College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama, 2001
Chauvel, Richard, Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Island From Colonialism to Revolt, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1990
Cooley, F.L., Ambonese Adat, New Haven: Yale University – Southeast Asia Studies, 1962
……………., Mimbar dan Takhta: Hubungan Lembaga-lembaga Keagamaan dan Pemerintahan di Maluku Tengah, Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1987
Coser, Lewis A., Master of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context, second edition, New York-Chicago-San Francisco-Atlanta: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977
Eisenstadt, S.N. (eds.,) Readings in Social Evolution and Development, Oxford, London, New York: Pergamon Press, 1970
Greenberg, Joseph H., “Linguistics and Ethnology” dalam Dell Hymes (eds.,) Language in Culture and Society: A reader in Linguistics and Anthropology, New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row Publisher, 1964
Jansen, H.J., “Indigenous Classification System in the Ambonese Moluccas”, dalam De Jong, P.E. De Josselin, Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands, Netherland: Foris Publication Holland/U.S.A, 1983
King, Gail and Meghan Wright, Difusionism and Acculturation, Departement of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama – diakses dari Landis, Paul H., Introductory Sociology, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958
Leirissa, R.Z., et.al., Sejarah Sosial di Daerah Maluku, Jakarta: Dep. Pendidikan & Kebudayaan – Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, 1982/1983
Lurie, Nancy Oestreich, “Cultural Change”, dalam James A. Cliftton (eds.,), Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, New York – Atlanta: Houghton Miffin Company Boston, 1968
Morgan, Lewis A., Ancient Society in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1877
Nanda, Serena, Cultural Anthropology, California: Wadsworth Publ., 1991
Sachse, F.J.P., Seran en Sune Bewonwers, edisi terjemahan oleh T. Tuarissa, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan-Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Ambon, 1996/1997
Schurhammer, Georg, Francis Xavier: His Life, His Time, Vol. III, Indonesia and India 1545-1549, Translated by M. Joseph Castelloe, Itally: The Jesuit Historical Institute, 1980
Scott, W.R., Institution and Organizations, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995
Scott, W.R. & Soren Christensen (eds.,), The Institutional Construction of Organization: International and Longitudinal Studies, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995
Sudjiman, Panuti dan Aart Van Zoest (Peny.,), Serba-serbi Semiotika, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1996
Wouden, F.A.E. Van, Klen, Mithos dan Kekuasaan, Jakarta: Grafiti Press, 1985
[1] F.J.P. Sachse, Seran en Sune Bewonwers, edisi terjemahan oleh T. Tuarissa, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan-Balai Kajian Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional Ambon, 1996/1997
[2] Baca. F. L. Cooley, Mimbar dan Takhta: Hubungan Lembaga-lembaga Keagamaan dan Pemerintahan di Maluku Tengah, Jakarta: Pustaka Sinar Harapan, 1987, atau Cooley, Ambonese Adat, New Haven: Yale University – Southeast Asia Studies, 1962
[3] Baca. Richard Chauvel, Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Island From Colonialism to Revolt, Leiden: KITLV Press, 1990
[4] Baca H.J. Jansen, “Indigenous Classification System in the Ambonese Moluccas”, dalam De Jong, P.E. De Josselin, Structural Anthropology in the Netherlands, Netherland: Foris Publication Holland/U.S.A, 1983, 100-115
[5] Baca M.C. Boulan, Uru: The Son of Sunrise, terj. S.J.M. Sijauta, Belgium: Antrhoplogical Center, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 1984, 1,7
[6] Baca Boulan, ibid., 1-3,7
[7] Asa dalam hal ini adalah refleksi ketunggalan mengenai empat elemen dasar dari alam semesta yaitu hawa (udara), api, air dan tanah. Keempat elemen itu ada dalam bumi, yaitu negeri sebagai tempat tinggal masyarakat. Pusat kosmos di negeri sebagai gambaran totalitas adalah baileu.
[8] Konsep itu berpangkal dari carapandang terhadap manusia sebagai totalitas fisik dan psikhis (dimensi antrophomorfis dalam worldview). Baca Boulan, ibid., 1-7. Mengenai sistem hukum, dapat dilihat pada aturan pembayaran denda adat di hampir setiap sub-suku di Maluku. Ada ketentuan pada sisi jumlah barang-barang atau uang yang harus dibayarkan sebagai bentuk sanksi adat, atau aturan hukum, termasuk dalam jumlah barang harta kawin, dll.
[9] Baca Jacob W. Ajawaila, “Orang Ambon dan Peranan Nenek Moyang (Leluhur), makalah diskusi, Ambon, 2000, 2-3
[10] Baca. S. Takdir Alisjahbana, Antropologi Baru, Jakarta: Dian Rakyat, 1986, 25-26
[11] Bnd. Robert N. Bellah, et.al, The Good Society, New York: Vintage Books – A Division of Random House, Inc., 1992, 10-11; R.N. Bellah & Phillip E. Hammoud, Varieties of Civil Religion, San Francisco: Harper & Row Publ., 1980, viii; bnd. W.R. Scott, Institution and Organizations, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995, 33; W.R. Scott & Soren Christensen (eds.,), The Institutional Construction of Organization: International and Longitudinal Studies, London & New Delhi: Sage Publ., 1995, xiii
[12] Tentang Wemale dan Alune, lihat Dieter Bartels, In de Schaduw Van de Berg Nunusaku: Een cultuur-historische verhandeling over de bevolking van de Midden-Molukken, Utrecht: Landelijk Steunpunt Edukatie Molukkers, 1994, 35-37
[13] Baca F.A.E. Van Wouden, Klen, Mithos dan Kekuasaan, Jakarta: Grafiti Press, 1985, 143, 144
[14] Cooley, ibid., 1987, 222
[15] Bnd. R.N. Bellah, “Evolusi Agama” dalam Rolland Robertson (eds.,), Agama dalam Analisa dan Interpretasi Sosiologis, Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 1993, 306 dyb
[16] Migrasi ini yang membidani terbentuknya Sejarah Pela/Gandong di Maluku (Tengah)
[17] Lht. Georg Schurhammer, Francis Xavier: His Life, His Time, Vol. III, Indonesia and India 1545-1549, Translated by M. Joseph Castelloe, Itally: The Jesuit Historical Institute, 1980, 81-2, 85-6
[18] Bnd. R.Z. Leirissa, et.al., Sejarah Sosial di Daerah Maluku, Jakarta: Dep. Pendidikan & Kebudayaan – Direktorat Sejarah dan Nilai Tradisional, Proyek Inventarisasi dan Dokumentasi Sejarah Nasional, 1982/1983, 11
[19] Baca Lewis A. Morgan, Ancient Society in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization, Chicago: Charles H. Kerr, 1877, 5,6; bnd. Kelly Chakov, Nineteen Century Social Evolutionism, Departement of Anthropological College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama, 2001; bnd. Serena Nanda, Cultural Anthropology, California: Wadsworth Publ., 1991, 34
[20] Spencer dalam Robert Briedstedt, The Making of Society, New York: Modern Library, 1959, 253-257
[21] Bellah, “Evolusi Agama”, dalam Roland Robertson (eds.,) ibid., 304
[22] Bnd. Nancy Oestreich Lurie, “Cultural Change”, dalam James A. Cliftton (eds.,), Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, New York – Atlanta: Houghton Miffin Company Boston, 1968, 276
[23] Baca S.N. Eisenstadt (eds.,) Readings in Social Evolution and Development, Oxford, London, New York: Pergamon Press, 1970, 153-210
[24] Bnd. Paul H. Landis, Introductory Sociology, New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1958, 16-18
[25] Ibid., 19
[26] Bnd. Panuti Sudjiman dan Aart Van Zoest (Peny.,), Serba-serbi Semiotika, Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1996, vii, 3, dyb.
[27] Joseph H. Greenberg, “Linguistics and Ethnology” dalam Dell Hymes (eds.,) Language in Culture and Society: A reader in Linguistics and Anthropology, New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row Publisher, 1964, 27
[28] Baca Lewis A. Coser, Master of Sociological Thought: Ideas in Historical and Social Context, second edition, New York-Chicago-San Francisco-Atlanta: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1977, 131; juga Robert N. Bellah (eds.,) Emile Durkheim on Morality and Society, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1973, 63-65
[29] Mischa Titiev and Robert H. Winthrop seperti dikutip Gail King and Meghan Wright, Difusionism and Acculturation, Departement of Anthropology College of Arts and Sciences The University of Alabama – diakses dari

[30] Paul H. Landis, ibid., 65, 67, 70

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